The BibleMy Basic Presupposition: The Bible is the Word of God(Spirit-inspired)in human words, within a historical process—that summons a personal response from the reader andfaith community.It can be summarized by:1)What God has said or done,2)Whathumans have doneor should doin the light of what God has said or done,3)A call for a personal or community response. Our beginning point for understanding the Bible is human words. That’s where we start. And it begins with careful OBSERVATION of thetext, followed by INTERPRETATION of the observations we’ve made, leading to APPLICATION of our interpretation, in personal, communal and missional contexts. Materials in Observation (The Raw “Stuff” of the Bible)Biography–persons (biographical material)History –events (historical material)Geography–places (geographical material)Ideology –ideas (ideological materialChronology –time (chronological or temporal material)Emotions–affections that are expressed (emotional material)Literary Relationships Chart (How the Raw Stuff is related)Literary RelationshipsCause-Effect->From action to the result producedGrounds-Conclusion -the basis or substantiation of an argument with the logical conclusion (e.g., if . . . then)Climax -a series of advancing events or ideas, with focus on the highest or greatest point being realizedIdentification -the meaning or significance of something is established by being equated with something elseComparison -similarity between two or more particulars, association of like thingsInstrumentality -a reference to the means by which an end or result is achieved. The means is identified apart from the causeComplementation -two paired items wherein one is the counterpart of the other; the latter fulfills what is called for in the first (question/answer, promise/fulfillment, problem/solution, disease/remedy, beginning . . . [interruption] . . . sequel)Interchange -the alternation of elements (persons, places, things, events, ideas) that occur in a series; or the exchange of one element with anotherCompletion -a progression of events or ideas to conclusion or resolutionParticularization -one or more specific references or statements which are part of a more inclusive reference; a movement from the general to the particular; many to oneContinuity -a recurrence of similar but not identical terms, phrases, clauses, statements, or eventsPivot -a movement of events or ideas to a crucial point on which subject matter turns in another directionContrast -a difference between two or more particulars which in a broad sense are comparablePreparation (Introduction) -the background or setting for events or ideas that enable the reader to understand what followsEffect-Cause -from result produced tosource actionProgression -an extension or development of a particular item in a certain directionExplanation -the presentation of an event or idea followed by a reason, interpretation, illustration, or clarification;Purpose –a goal or purpose thatis in viewRepetition -a recurrence of the same terms, phrases, clauses, or statements; repetition of word familyGeneralization -an inclusive reference or statement that embodies on or more particulars; a movement from the particular to the general; one to manySummarization (Conclusion) -a wrap-up or survey of material that has been (or is to be) presentedLogical Connectives ConnectiveLiterary RelationshipConnectiveLiterary RelationshipAfterChronological Relationship, Cause-EffectLikewiseComparisonAlso ComparisonMuch moreComparison, ContrastAlthoughContrastNeverthelessContrastAsChronological Relationship, ComparisonNotContrastAs . . . soComparisonNowUsually Progression, sometimes TemporalBecauseExplanationOnlyEmphasis, ContrastBeforeChronological Relationship, Effect-CauseOrContrast, Series of Statements or FactsBut ContrastOtherwiseContrastFinallySummarizationSinceExplanation, Cause-EffectFirst of allProgression, Series of Statements or FactsSo Comparison, Cause-EffectForExplanationSo alsoComparison, Cause-EffectFrom thereGeographical ProgressionSo thatExplanation, Statement of Purpose (look for result)HoweverContrastThenChronological Relationship, Cause-EffectIfConditional Cause-EffectThereforeExplanation, Grounds-Conclusion
In order thatExplanation, Statement of PurposeThusExplanation, Cause-EffectIndeedEmphasisUntilChronological RelationshipInsteadContrastWhenChronological Relationship, Cause-EffectJust as … soComparisonWhere Geographical RelationshipLast of allSummarization, Series of Statements WhileChronological RelationshipLikeComparison, SimileYetContrastFigures of SpeechAnthropomorphism–attributing human characteristics to what is not human; speaking of God in human terms; a kind of metaphorMetonymy -using one thing for another because the two are closely associatedAllegory-an extended metaphor (figurative vs. literal)Parable -an extended simileEuphemism-a term substituted for one that would be more harsh, distasteful, or unpleasantPersonification -a thing, quality, or idea is represented as a personHyperbole -a conscious exaggeration for effectSimile -explicit comparison using key words such as likeor asIrony or Sarcasm-words used to denote the opposite of what the speaker intendsSynecdoche –A part represents the whole, or the whole represents a partMetaphor -implicit comparison without key words; one thing described in terms of something elseObservation CategoriesCategory 1–how the segment relates to preceding/other segmentsCategory 3 –relationships between parts of 2 or more ¶’sCategory 2–relationships within a single paragraph (¶)Category 4 –relationships between overall themes of 2 or more ¶’sTypes of Interpretive Questions(A, B, & C refer to the historical or literary)Type A–what does this term, relation, form, phrase, etc. mean?Type D –why is this statement or principle true or necessary?Type B–why or how did the actionor event occur?Type E –what does this imply? Type C–what is the author’s intent in recording this here?(E responds to observations & answers to interpretive questions)
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