Directive for Final Exam/Research paper—For courses : Linguistics 339, Linguistics 417. The choice between prompts has to do with whether your research topic relates to child language (L1) or second language (L2) phonology. (Also, ‘autism’ as well as ‘language impairment’ are possible topics). Regarding L1 phonology, what you want to write on as a prompt to research is two-prong: (i) Phonemic development (where the maturational development of consonant comes into play: e.g., there is an optionality, pecking order of development based on ease vs complexity of phoneme production. Plosives /b,p/, /d,t/, /g,k/, nasals /m/, /n, m/, bilabial glide /w/ being earlier mastered as opposed to, say, palatal fricatives /ž, š/ or interdental fricatives /δ,θ/. Question: What are the implications to this development with regards to: (i) Spelling/writing, (ii) Speech development…? (ii) Syllabic development (where phased-sequence of CV (consonant vowel), to CV:CV, CVC, to CCVC (CC-clusters, e.g., school /skul/[CCVC] = /kul/ [CVC] ) proceed in stages. See syllabic development. Similar implications to speech development. These two aspects (phonemic/syllabic) can be addressed in a variety of means: (i) L1 (child speech—’Language in the Early-School Years’), (ii) L2 (Second language- interference/transfer both for phonemic as well as syllabic features). (see materials enclosed). Prompts for Phonology Research/Final Exam (3-11-20/CSUN ~galasso) In addition to analyses of phonological data (for Ling 339), one question to ask is what are the teaching implications involved with these patterns of development and/or L1-transfer interferences? Regarding L2 phonology (second language), prompts are similar to L1 (above) with the added stipulation that development may be complicated by the underlying L1 (the native language’s speech patterns). For example, see L1-transfer L1-interference which may impact both phonemic as well as syllabic production. For instance, if the L1 is only a CVCV pattern (as found in Japanese) one might expect English CCVC borrowings to be reduced and pronounced as CVCV—e.g., ‘story’ (initial CC-cluster) /stori/ => /sutori/ (as pronounced by Japanese L1 speakers speaking English as an L2): [CCVC] /stori/ => [CVCVCV] /sutori/ in order to reduce initial CCcluster /st/. /st/ => /sut/. (See lecture material ‘Accumulative Lecture’ link enclosed, first link). Phonemic repair also will show whereas L2 phonemes not found in the L1 inventory will be substituted with closest L1 phoneme: (i) Spanish ‘sh’ /š/ doesn’t exist: so, closest replacement is ‘ch’ /č/ (palatal fricative turns into an palatal affricate). Shower /šaur/ => chower /čaur/ (ii) English /v/ => /b/ (‘victor’ becomes ‘bictor’, etc.) *One interesting idea is to present IPA charts for L1 and to see where they overlap between L1 and L2, showing where the greatest likelihood of L1-transfer will occur. *Note. For Ling 339 particularly, your research paper/exam should involve two main sections: (i) The speech data being examined (ii) The teaching/pedagogical implications… The teaching implications/pedagogy can consist of a literature review of the data observed. Final exam research paper should include the following format: (i) Introduction (laying out your topic of research). The Intro should also include some theoretical background (historical perspective e.g., Behaviorism, audio-lingual approach vs. phonological representational theories of speech). (ii) Body—This is the section where you present data & analyses…please be sure to include plenty of examples w. analysis. Use IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) whenever applicable. (iii) Conclusion—final remarks. Ling 417/339 final paper max word count is 3,000 words (min word count is 2,000, or 3- 4pp single space).
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