# Relationship Between Smoking and Lung Cancer

Relationship Between Smoking and Lung Cancer

1. Different study designs to investigate the relationship between smoking & lung cancer:
2. Researchers recruited 200 70-year-old former factory workers who had been diagnosed with lung cancer, and an additional 200 70-year-old former factory workers who were screened and found to be free of lung cancer. The study participants were asked about their smoking history during the past 50 years.  Among those with lung cancer, 127 were smokers.  Among those without lung cancer, 35 were smokers.

Study design?                                  Timing?

Using the data above, construct a 2×2 table.  Identify and calculate the appropriate measures of frequency and association.  Interpret your findings.

1. Researchers recruited a group of 20-year-old factory workers and followed them for 50 years. During the study period, 162 participants were regular cigarette smokers, and 238 were non-smokers.  By the time the participants were 70 years old, 127 of the smokers were diagnosed with lung cancer, as were 73 non-smokers.  None of the study participants were lost to follow-up.

Study design?                                        Timing?

Using the data above, construct a 2×2 table.  Identify and calculate the appropriate measures of frequency and association.  Interpret your findings.

1. Researchers identified 400 individuals who worked at the same factory in 1930, at which time the workers were all 20 years old. In 2010, using medical records, the researchers assessed smoking behavior and lung cancer over a 50 year period previously.  162 of the workers had been regular cigarette smokes, 127 of whom had been diagnosed with lung cancer during the follow-up period.  238 of the workers were non-smokers, 73 of whom had been diagnosed with lung cancer during the follow-up period.  16 smokers were lost after 25 years, as were 23 non-smokers.

Study design?                                        Timing?

Using the data from the study above, construct a 2×2 table.  Identify and calculate the appropriate measures of frequency.  Then calculate a difference and a ratio measure of association. Interpret your findings.

1. Researchers recruited 400 70-year-old former factory workers to take a survey. A lung cancer diagnosis was reported by 127 of 162 smokers.  Diagnosed lung cancer was also reported by 73 of the 238 non-smokers.

Study design?                                        Timing?

Use the data described in the study above to construct a 2×2 table.  Identify and calculate the appropriate measures of frequency.  Then calculate a difference and a ratio measure of association. Interpret your findings.

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