These diagrams show surface winds at two locations. All factors in both situations are identical except that one surface is land and the other is water. (Text Section 18.2) Which diagram represents winds over the land? Explain your choice. Assume that you are an observer checking this aneroid barometer (following page) several hours after it was last checked. (Text Section 18.3) a) What is the pressure tendency? b) How did you figure this out? c) What does the tendency shown on the barometer indicate about forthcoming weather? The accompanying sketch shows a cross section of the idealized circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. Match the appropriate number on the sketch to each of the following features: (a) equatorial low, (b) polar front, (c) subtropical high, (d) polar high. (Text Section 18.4)

Data Analysis – The Atmosphere

This is a two-part lab assignment covering concepts of wind, air pressure, weather and storms covered in Chapters 18 and 19 in your text. All answers must be typed in bold. Save your answers as a .doc or .docx file and upload to the designated D2L dropbox by the posted deadline.

 

  1. These diagrams show surface winds at two locations. All factors in both situations are identical except that one surface is land and the other is water. (Text Section 18.2)

Which diagram represents winds over the land? Explain your choice.

 

 

 

 

  1. Assume that you are an observer checking this aneroid barometer (following page) several hours after it was last checked. (Text Section 18.3)

 

  1. a) What is the pressure tendency?

 

  1. b) How did you figure this out?

 

  1. c) What does the tendency shown on the barometer indicate about forthcoming weather?

 

 

 

  1. The accompanying sketch shows a cross section of the idealized circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. Match the appropriate number on the sketch to each of the following features: (a) equatorial low, (b) polar front, (c) subtropical high, (d) polar high. (Text Section 18.4)

 

 

1 –

2 –

3 –

4 –

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When designing an airport, it is important to have planes take offintothe wind. (Text Section 18.6)

Refer to the accompanying wind rose and describe the orientation of the runway and the direction planes would usually travel when taking off.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Use the accompanying drawing to answer the following (Text Section 18.2):
  2. Identify the arrows labeled A and B as representing either the pressure gradient force, the Coriolis effect, or friction.

A –
B –

  1. Is the wind in this drawing occurring near Earth’s surface or aloft?

 

  1. The following map is a simplified surface weather map for April 2, 2011, on which three pressure cells are numbered. (Text Section 18.2)
  2. Identify which of the pressure cells are anticyclones (highs) and which are cyclones (lows).

1 –
2 –
3 –

  1. Which pressure cell has the steepest pressure gradient and therefore the strongest winds?
  2. Refer to text Figure 18.2 to determine whether pressure cell 3 should be considered strong or weak.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The accompanying maps of Africa show the distribution of precipitation for July and January (Text Section 18.4)
  2. a) Which map represents July, and which represents January?
  3. b) How were you able to figure this out?

 

 

 

  1. The following image shows wintertime sea-surface temperature anomalies (differences from average) over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Based on this map, answer the following questions: (Text Section 18.7)

 

  1. In what phase was the Southern Oscillation (El Niño or La Niña) when this image was made?
  2. Would the trade winds be strong or weak at this time?
  3. If you lived in Australia during this event, what weather conditions would you expect?
  4. If you were attending college in the southeastern United States during winter months, what type of weather conditions would you expect? (Hint: See Text Figure 18.25.)

 

 

  1. This satellite image shows a tropical cyclone (Text Section 18.3).
  1. Examine the cloud pattern and determine whether the flow is clockwise or counterclockwise.
  2. In which hemisphere is the storm located?
  3. What factor determines whether the flow is clockwise or counterclockwise?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Identify the air mass source regions associated with each letter on this map as either continental polar (cP), continental tropical (cT), maritime polar (mP) or maritime tropical (mT). One letter is notassociated with a source region. Which one is it? (Text Section 19.1)

 

A –

B –

C –
D –

 

 

 

 

  1. Identify each of these symbols used to designate fronts. On which side of each symbol are the warmer air and the cooler air? (Text Section 19.2)

 

 

Front Name Warm Air (top or bottom) Cold Air (top or bottom)
A      
B      
C      
D      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Examine the following image of a thunderstorm (Text Section 19.4).

 

  1. a) Which stage in the development of a thunderstorm is shown in this sketch?

 

  1. b) Describe what is occurring. Is there a stage that follows this one? If so, describe what occurs during that stage.

 

 

 

  1. This graph shows the number of hurricanes in the North Atlantic between May and December over a 100-year span. Why is the occurrence of hurricanes low in early summer? (Text Section 19.6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Examine the following weather map to complete the table. (Text Section 19.3)

 

Weather Condition City A City B City C
Wind Direction      
Air Mass (cold, warm, cool)      
Barometric Tendency (increasing or decreasing)      
Coldest City      
Warmest City      

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The following diagrams show surface temperatures with isotherms labeled in degrees Fahrenheit for noon and 6 p.m. on January 29, 2008. On this day, a powerful front moved through Missouri and Illinois. (Text Section 19.2)
  1. What type of front passed through the Midwest?
  2. Describe how the temperature changed in St. Louis, Missouri, over the 6-hour period.
  3. Describe the likely shift in wind direction in St. Louis during this time span.

 

 

 

 

  1. The accompanying table lists the number of tornadoes reported in the United States by decade. Propose one or two reasons to explain why the totals for the 1990s and 2000s are so much higher than for the 1950s and 1960s. (Text Section 19.5)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The following maps show Hurricane Fran on successive days (Text Section 19.6) .

 

  1. a) Did the storm get stronger or weaker on September 6 compared to September 5?

 

  1. b) What feature on the weather map (other than the label change from one day to the next) is most useful in figuring this out at a glance?

 

  1. c) Suggest a reason that the storm’s intensity changed.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. This world map shows the tracks and intensities of thousands of hurricanes and other tropical cyclones. It was put together by the National Hurricane Center and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.(Text Section 19.6)

 

  1. a) What area has experienced the greatest number of category 4 and 5 storms?

 

  1. b) Why do hurricanes not form in the very heart of the tropics, astride the equator?

 

  1. c) Explain the absence of storms in the South Atlantic and the eastern South Pacific.

 

 

 

  1. Refer to the graph in the following diagram. Explain why wind speeds are greatest when the slope of the pressure curve is steepest. (Text Section 19.6)

 

 

 

 

  1. This following satellite image shows Tropical Cyclone Favia as it came ashore along the coast of Mozambique, Africa, on February 22, 2007. This powerful storm was moving from east to west. Portions of the storm had sustained winds of 203 kilometers (126 miles) per hour as it made landfall. Letters A–D relate to Question c.
  2. Identify the eye and the eye wall of the cyclone.
  3. Based on wind speed, classify the storm using the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.
  4. Which one of the lettered sites should experience the strongest storm surge?

 

 
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